ARCHAEOLOGY
Scientific journal of the Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences in Ukraine
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"Archaeology" 2, 2003


Congratulation with high rank!

Articles
Kotova N.S. THE DIVISION INTO PERIODS AND CHRONOLOGY OF AZOV-DNIEPER CULTURE
Polin S.V. AS TO THE ROBBERY OF BURIAL MOUNDS IN THE CERTOMLYK REGION
Zubar V.M. SARMATIAN, POPULATION OF TAURICA AND CHERSONESOS IN THE 1st CENTURY AD
Ivchenko A.V. THE APPEARANCE OF HUNS ON THE NORTHERN COAST AREA OF THE BLACK SEA
Krasilnikova L.I. THE FIREPLACES AND THE STOVES IN THE CONSTRUCTIONS FROM THE KHAZARS TIME IN THE STEP OF THE DONETS RIVER REGION

Publications of archaeologocal materials
Smilenko A.T. THE SETTLEMENT OF ETULIAN TYPE IN THE DANUBE REGION
Mogilov A.D. THE COMPONENTS OF HARNESS OF SCYTHIAN TIME ON SITES OF THE WESTERN PODILLA CLUSTER
Majko V.V. KYRK-ERSKIY BURIED TREASURE OF 15TH-CENTURY AD (PRELIMINARILY INFORMATION)

To a history of ancient manufacture
Boltrik Ju.V., Voznesenskaya G.A., Fialko E.E. THE IRON DAGGER FROM THE SITE OF ANCIENT SETTLEMENT OF TRAKHTEMYRIV
Pankov S.V., Manychev V.I., Nedopalko D.P. THE NEW TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES OF THE REMAINDERS OF ANCIENT FERROUS METALLURGY AND METELWORK IN THE ENVIRONS OF SINITSA VILLAGE
Gorbanenko S.A. AS TO THE HISTORY OF CATTLE-BREEDING OF SLAVE TRIBES ON THE TERRITORY OF THE LEFT BANK OF DNIEPER IN THE LAST QUARTER OF 1ST MILLENNIUM AD

New discoveries and finds
Ivanova S.V., Petrova K.A., Budykin I.Ja. THE MOST ANSIENT STONE ANCHOR FROM THE SETTLEMENT OF GRABIVKA IV
Magomedov B.V. THE FIBULA WITH EMARGINATE ENAMEL FROM THE VELYKA SNYTINKA

Chronicle
Zaliznyak L.L., Yakovleva L.A., Gavrileko I.M. THE INTERNATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONFERENCE "GONTSY' SITE AND PROBLEMS OF STONE AGE OF UKRAINE"
Kolesnokova V.A. A BOOK REVIEW

Memory
Lyashko S.N. ABOUT PARTICIPATION V.YU. DANILEVICH IN PREPARATION AND WORKS OF THE 12TH ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONGRESS IN KHARKOV, 1902

The help for the teachers
Brezhko O.V. BIOMOLECULAR METHODS OF STUDY OF PHILOGENESIS IN FORMATION OF THE NEW SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS OF AN ORIGIN HOMO SAPIENS

Authors
Abbreviation



N.S. Kotova

THE DIVISION INTO PERIODS AND CHRONOLOGY OF AZOV-DNIEPER CULTURE

The existence of Azov-Dnieper culture covers about 1200 years. Its Neolithic period is dated from 5100 to 4350 BC and synchronized with Surskaja and Kiev-Cherkassy cultures, and also with late sites of Bug-Dniester culture. The Eneolithic period, which is synchronous to Tripole A and to the early faze of Sredny Stog cultures, falls on 4350-3900 BC.


S.V. Polin

AS TO THE ROBBERY OF BURIAL MOUNDS IN THE CERTOMLYK REGION

The article analyses and systematizes the information about construction of robber sap in the Chertomlyk burial mound. Chertomlyk was robed twice. In Scythian time robbers had robed the northern entrance grave in the northern-western mound of burial, dug the sap from there to the middle of burial and entered the chamber #5 of the Central tomb. Sizable collapses of vault of the chamber had prevented thorough robbery, and the final collapse of vault of the chamber had broken off the robbery, given no possibility to penetrate into other chambers of the Central tomb and led to the death of one of accomplices of rubbery. Later on the robbery took place at the end of 18th - at the beginning of 19th century and hadnt results as a whole. Later robbers knowing nothing about construction of burial didnt detect the chamber of the Northen grave, and the collapse of soil over the chamber 5, reaching the thickness of mound, prevented penetrating into the chamber 5 and other caves of Central tomb. In such a contingency treasury of Chertomlyk had saved as a whole till the excavation of I.E. Zabelin in 1863. It is rejected Ju. V. Boltriks hypothesis about reconsideration of purpose of the robber sap of the Chertomlyk and the Northen grave as groundless one and his interpretation of stratigraphy of the Chertomlyk burial mound on the whole.

The article also deals with some information according to the history of robbery of the burial mounds in the 19th -at the beginning of 20th century on the northern coast area of the Black Sea as a whole, and on the region of Chertomlyk burial mound in particular indicative of dimensions of that process. Ethnographer P. Ryabkovs letter of 1910, which is published for the first time, contains valuable characteristics of robs of this period, methods and dimensions of their work.




V.M. Zubar

SARMATIAN, POPULATION OF TAURICA AND CHERSONESOS IN THE 1st CENTURY AD

Based on the sources which is available in present, it is safe to say that during the first half and the third quarter of the 1st century AD Taurica was included in the sphere of the military and political activity of Sarmatian unions. The late Scythian, who after the Diophantos campaign had no the common political integrity, formed part of the early state Sarmatian union, which could have been named the nomadic empire or the nomadic confederation. Namely this political union became the principal military and political power in Taurica and the real threat to the existence of the main center of the ancient civilization - to Chersonesos. Owing to the strong measures of the legate of Moesia province T.Plautius Silvanus, in the 60s years of the 1st centurie AD the situation of the city stabilized, and by the beginning of the 2nd century AD the relatively peaceful relations were established between Chersonesos and barbarians living in Taurica, and were conducive to the beginning of activization of versatile economic connexions.

In the wide historical plan, the events, which took place in the 1st century AD in Taurica, are evidence of the comprehension by Rome the movement of the processes in the Northern Black Sea coast, and the threat from the Sarmatian side, who migrated from time to time through the steppe zone of the region to the borders of the empire. Consequently, during the reign of the emperor Nero the first large-scale and successful enough attempt to give the active military help to Greek population of Chersonesos and to turn it into the true ally of the empire was made. Namely since that time and up to the end of the ancient epoch Sarmatian migrations from the steppe zone of the region of Northern Black Sea coast became the major for the historical development not only for the barbarian population of Taurica and Chersonesos, but also for the Danube provinces of the Roman empire.




A.V. Ivchenko

THE APPEARANCE OF HUNS ON THE NORTHERN COAST AREA OF THE BLACK SEA

The questions, which are connected with peculiarity, chronology and ways of appearance of Huns on the territory of the northern fringes of the Black Sea, couldnt have been still solved finally. According to the scheme being in wide usage the Huns, developed into union on Volga region, were to this territory across the northern ciscaucasian region. This opinion is corroborated by an analysis of archaeological sources. Hunnish burials on the northern fringes of the Black Sea are divided into two clusters by the way of burying and type of burial construction. Possibly, it was bound up with ethnical heterogeneity of the population, which left the sites. It is possible, that Crimea sites were left by Huns-Althiagirs, who formed part of Hunnish union and aforementioned in the writing records.

It may be added, that the results of mapping of archaeological sites well illustrate Huns advancement from the Volga across the northern ciscaucasian region to the territories of the northern coast of the Black Sea and to the Crimea.




L.I. Krasilnikova

THE FIREPLACES AND THE STOVES IN THE CONSTRUCTIONS FROM THE KHAZARS TIME IN THE STEP OF THE DONETS RIVER REGION

Extensive archaeological staff is the basis of the article, which deals with make and function of fireplace construction in the dwellings and household constructions of Saltov-Mayaki culture in the step of the Donets river region. Open fireplaces, mud and remnant stoves, stone stoves, tandyrs founded in a number of constructions are evidence not only getting Slav and Asia traditions in the life of the population of Saltov culture, but also changing the whole style of life of step population, which became more settled.




A.T. Smilenko

THE SETTLEMENT OF ETULIAN TYPE IN THE DANUBE REGION

The settlement of Nagornoye supplements the not enough studied group of Etulian type sites in the Danube region. This small village, investigated by the Dniester -Danube expedition of the Institute of Archaeology of the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences in 1983-1986, includes a dwelling, three big household buildings, and seven household pits using as a depository. The dwelling is a half pit-house with a clay stove, shelves and benches at the walls. Two household buildings had a shape as a figure of eight in the construction of two joint pits. They had a cover and below stairs to the pits. Among the finds, the coarse handmade pottery predominates in the settlement. The fragments of amphorae of the Roman time were found almost in the same quantity. There also have been excavated some fragments of wheeling red clay and gray clay pottery, probably imported, and small things of everyday life. Among the handmade vassals, there are some fragments of the Late Scythian type and ones having the analogies in the forest - steppe zone.

The settlement is dated from the 4th-century AD by the amphorae and the archaeomagnetic dating. The culture is not of local origin. It is intended, that the group of forest-steppe population came to the Danube region. Approximately, it was a group of tribes of the late Zarubinetskaya culture (venedi), the descendants of which were the inhabitants of the settlement.




A.D. Mogilov

THE COMPONENTS OF HARNESS OF SCYTHIAN TIME ON SITES OF THE WESTERN PODILLA CLUSTER

The article publishes the objects of harness of Scythian time from the territory of the Western Podilla cluster. The author does its typological and chronological analysis and makes an attempt of reconstruction of bridle. The article deals with material for the whole Scythian problems. The major objects of harness on the mentioned territory are bits, cheek-pieces, different bridle buckles and badges. Great number of materials dates back to the archaic time.

The objects of bridle fix the prevalence of culture of Scythian type in the Middle Dniester area from 7th - century BC.




V.V. Majko

KYRK-ERSKIY BURIED TREASURE OF 15TH-CENTURY AD (PRELIMINARILY INFORMATION)

The article deals with buried treasure, which was discovered westwards of the south gate of Chufut-Cale hillford in 2002, containing 4259 silver, 1 copper and 30 golden coins. All the golden coins, except one, are Venice ducats, minted under 8 doges of 14th-15th-century. One coin was minted supposedly by Bars-Bey (1420-1438).

Approximately half of all silver coins (2102 specimens) are aspres of the so-called Genoa-Tatars coinage, among which specimens with two-tines tamga dominate. The second part of treasure trove is coins without Genoa features. The first category contains dirhems of Uzbek 720 y. h., seldom of 713 y. h., including the coins with countermarks (1829 specimens), the second category contains dirhems of Hadzhi-Girey (42 specimens), the third one is dirhems with two-tines tamga of Ulu-Muhammed (214 specimens), the fourth category contains dirhems, which are minted by the khans of Golden Horde (68 specimens), such as Tokta (1), Uzbek (1), Tohtamysh (1), Timur-Kutluk (1), Shadibek (4), Pulad-khan (2), Dzhelal-ed-Dyne (1), Kerim-Birdi (1), Kibak-khan (1), Chegre-khan (5), Dervish (2), Ulu-Muhammed (6). 31 coins are defined with difficulty. The buried treasure has one Moldavian grosh of Alexander the Kind and one Byzantine coin of John V Palaeologus. Only copper coin dates from the first half of 15th-century. The time of thesauretion of this treasure trove is the beginning of 70th years of 15th-century. Over whelming majority of the coins dates from 20th-30th years of the 15th century.




Ju.V. Boltrik, G.A. Voznesenskaya, E.E. Fialko

THE IRON DAGGER FROM THE SITE OF ANCIENT SETTLEMENT OF TRAKHTEMYRIV

The very well preserved iron dagger was found during the investigation of part of defensive works of Trakhtemyriv hillford in 2000. The dagger has bar-shaped top and heart-shaped crossing of irregularly shaped handle, two-edges blade with longitudinal verge. The results of metallographical analysis and peculiarity of blacksmith's manufacture of dagger single out it from the iron things of the hillford stuff. Short swords and daggers with bar-shaped top and heart-shaped crossing, which is analogous to the Trakhtemirov one, are well-known both within the bounds of the European Scythia and outside them, especially among the arms coming from the Northen Caucasus. On the grounds of wide range of adduced analogous, attendant finds and results of radiocarbon dating of organic remainders from the place of finding the dagger is dated not later then the first quarter of 4th -century BC. The circumstances of finding and the date of the dagger fix the vestiges the Scythian attack in the hillford and make more precise the time of this event.


S.V. Pankov, V.I. Manychev, D.P. Nedopalko

THE NEW TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES OF THE REMAINDERS OF ANCIENT FERROUS METALLURGY AND METELWORK IN THE ENVIRONS OF SINITSA VILLAGE

The article deals with results of new investigations of chemical composition of artifacts from the settlement near the village of Sinitsa, and also from metallurgical site in the environs of Uman town. Also the results of radiocarbon dating and paleobotanical researches have been listed. On the basis of obtained data the settlement near the village of Sinitsa dates back to the time of the late Zarubyntsi culture and has a production trend, not an agricultural.


S.A. Gorbanenko

AS TO THE HISTORY OF CATTLE-BREEDING OF SLAVE TRIBES ON THE TERRITORY OF THE LEFT BANK OF DNIEPER IN THE LAST QUARTER OF 1ST MILLENNIUM AD

On present day a number of archeozoological materials is stored in the scientific literature and unpublished papers, which is enough for the attempt of reconstruction of animal herd stuff, which the Slav population on the territory of the Left Bank of Dnieper had in the last quarter of 1st millennium AD. This database permits to contend that Slav population had a highly developed cattle-breeding.

The neat cattles were the mane part of animals. Besides, the researching showed, that animals, which were used as a draught power traditionally, were killed for meat in the most cases when they were adult or in the faze of pubescence, where as pigs, which were bred only for meat, were killed as sucking-pigs. This data permits to suppose the presence of feeding-stuffs and, as a consequence, well developed agriculture.




S.V. Ivanova, K.A. Petrova, I.Ja. Budykin

THE MOST ANSIENT STONE ANCHOR FROM THE SETTLEMENT OF GRABIVKA IV

The article analyzes anthropological and paleopathological investigations of the new stuff from the dwelling of the Vladimirs town which was destroyed during the storm of Kiev by Batu. Craniological, osteological data as to Kiev population in the middle of the 13th-Century AD and also data of paleopathologic analyces of skulls and bones of the postcranial skeletons of three males and two females lost in the December of 1240 are put to scientific circulation. The signs of mortal traumas have been detected in the skulls of two males. Judging by getting data the males were tall and female were low. They had good adaptation for habitat condition and for hard manual labour that is peculiarity of the skeletons developments gives evidence to it and also points out at the specific of the professional jobs of this people. At the same time a great number of healing traumas gives evidence both about high everyday traumatism and about frequent armed conflict. Getting to the childhood time of the majority of individuals unfavourable, hungry years and epidemics at the beginning of the 13th-Century AD left traces in the bones of these humans and had an influence on resicitention of their organisms to the different illness. Our researching showed that population of Kiev had been in pain with infections sickness including some forms of tuberculosis. That is the illness which isnt mentioned in the Ancient Rus annals.


B.V. Magomedov

THE FIBULA WITH EMARGINATE ENAMEL FROM THE VELYKA SNYTINKA

Open-worked three-cornered fibula with cross-shaped end (subtype III. 2 by G.F. Korzukhina, the middle of the 3rd -the beginning of 4th century AD) is found on the site of Chernyahkov culture. Judging by the narrow localization of the such finds, they were an ethnographical adornment, which the noble women of separate tribe (venedi the Slav) had. The tribe was a part of the Middle Dnieper cluster of Kyiv culture. About the boundary of the 3rd and 4th centuries the settlements of this population vanished under the pressure of Chernyakov culture (that is Gothic) expansion. In the same time the separate wares with enamel appeared on the sites of Chernyakhov culture, sometimes together with their holders. A part of population of Kyiv culture found a haven among the kindred tribes of Desna river basin. This fact explains the fibulas under review being in the Borznyanskiy treasure trove.


O.V. Brezhko

BIOMOLECULAR METHODS OF STUDY OF PHILOGENESIS IN FORMATION OF THE NEW SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS OF AN ORIGIN HOMO SAPIENS

The article is devoted to the last achievements of genetics which have made revolution in a study of human origin. As a result of biomolecular phylogeny researches the conclusion was made that Neanderthals belonged to a separate species, whose evolutionary branch had deviated from a common stem Homo sapiens in Africa or South Europe more than 500 thousand years ago. But there are unsolved questions which demand further researches.



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