ARCHAEOLOGY
Scientific journal of the Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences in Ukraine
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"Archaeology" 1, 2003


Congratulation with State Prize!

Articles
SMIRNOV S.V. Archaeological culture: contradiction of the elaboration of the problem
BEREZNITSKAYA I.N. Geomorphology of paleolithic sites in Bakshala river valley
ZUBAR V.M. To the history of Taurica in the 2nd - 1st-centuries BC

Publications of archaeologocal materials
RUSIAYEVA M.V. The most ancient sculpture of Hermes Propyley from the Tauric Chersonesos
VINOGRADOV J.G., ZAYTZEV J.P. The new epigraphy antiquity from Scythian Naples (preliminary publication)
VYNOKUR I.S., YAKUBOVSKY V.I., ZHURKO O.I., MEGEI V.P. The storage treasure of the annalistic Hubyn

To a history of ancient manufacture
PETRAUSKAS A.V. Extraction and Treatment of stone at the ancient Rus villages of the Middle Dnieper Area

Discussions
ZUCKERMAN K. Two steps of the formation of the ancient Rus state
TOLOCHKO P.P. The primordial is the Rus

New discoveries and finds
TRASTER M.J., ZUBAR V.M., STROCOVA L.V. Two leaden plates with portrayal of the Danube Knight from the collection of the National Museum of Ukrainian History
ROMANYUK V.V. The complex of finds from the settlement of Chernigov culture near the Lukyanovka village
KOZAK O.D., POTEHINA I.D. Inhabitants of the Vladimirs town under the anthropological data

Chronicle
BUYSKIKH S.B. The International congress of the classical antiquity in Bordeaux
KOZAK D.N., FILIPCHUK M.A., MILYAN T.R. The International archaeological conference New technologies in archaeology
KOLESNIKOVA V.A. A book review
To 60-years of D.P. Nedopako

Memory
SITNIK O.S. Yu. Polansky - the first researcher of westukrainian palaeolithic period

Reviews
PIORO I.S. .. .
BEREZANSKAYA S.S., VIDEYKO M.Y. Libera J. Krzemienne forme bifacialne na terenach Polski i Zachodniej Ukrainy

Authors
Abbreviation



S.V. Smirnov

ARCHAEOLOGICAL CULTURE: CONTRADICTIONS OF THE ELABORATION OF THE PROBLEM

During the last years, many archaeologists identify the notion archaeological culture with a notion ethnic culture or even with its bearers. It is noted in the methodological and educational texts that archaeological culture is the historical result of the activity of the separate ethno-social formation. Nevertheless, in the modern archaeological science there are a number of cultures, which have been connected with the activity of several ethnic groups. Chernyakhovskaya culture, which is the outcome of five different and distant ethnic groups, may serve as an example. The problematic situation, which was drown up, demands the creation of the strong theoretic basis. It strongly needs clear conceptions how the ethnic information materializes in the subjects coming to us as an archaeological material. The searches of the criteria of archaeological cultures distinguishing as the material evidences of vital activity of separate ancient societies wont get over the limits of subjective conception without solving of this questions. Archaeology is unable to solve this problem alone. The way of the development of ethno-archaeology that is joint activity of ethnographers and archaeologists on studying of the modern alive primitive societies could make progress in this question. This hard and time-consuming work should get the prior significance.



I.N. Bereznitskaya

GEOMORPHOLOGY OF PALEOLITHIC SITES IN BAKSHALA RIVER VALLEY

This article is aimed to analyze the geomorphologic situation of the Bakshala river valley in the right bank of South Bug inflow. There are 25 Paleolithic sites in the southern part of the Bakshala valley and four of them have been investigated. Nature conditions of economical development of micro-region inhabitants in late Palaeolit have been shown. The relief features of the Bakshala valley was conductive to living bison and other animals. The direction of hunting with using geomorphology of right and left banks, the raw materials sources for implement preparation, the directions of searching and collecting the stone materials by ancient people were characterized.


V.M. Zubar

TO THE HISTORY OF TAURICA IN THE 2nd - 1st-CENTURIES BC

The present article is the first paper from the series of articles, researched into the interrelations of the late Scythians and Sarmatians. Based on the complex of sources it considers the number of questions on the history of these people in the 2nd - 1st-Centuries BC. The author draws up a conclusion that starting from the 2nd -Century BC Sarmatians were carrying out raids to the Taurica and during the period of the Chersonesos - Scythian wars at the end of the 2nd -Century BC they were participating in them on the Scythian part, though on the basis of the present data, one cant state that starting with that time their migration to the Late Scythia territory from Perekop had begun. After Diophantos victories over the Scythians their military potential was considerably broken and the Sarmatians could have established the allied relations with the chieftain of Pontus Mithridates VI Eupatoros despite the loss of Tasius detachment. All of these events could have some reflection in the following history of the late Scythians and in the history of the mane center of the ancient Greek civilization in the South-Western Taurica - Chersonesos is.


M.V. Rusiaeva

THE MOST ANCIENT SCULPTURE OF HERMES PROPYLEY FROM THE TAURIC CHERSONESOS

In 1889 the herm fragment of archaic type marble head was found near the apse of the basilica into the basilica in the northern district of Chersonesos. Starting with first publication the main part of researchers determines it as an figure of Dionysus-Sabaisiy. However, careful analysis of art of this sculpture gives quite well reason to suppose that this fragment is one of the earliest figure of Hermes Propyley Alcamen which saves stylistic and iconography peculiarity of the original. The popularity of that fixed iconography type have a conformation, first of all, by hellenistic terracotta form of the 3rd-2nd-Century BC, which was used for the copying of the same Hermes heads and it also was found in Chersonesos. Besides, this head is one of a few Attica manufacturing originals of the 4th-Century BC finding by excavations of that Northern Pont polis.


J.G. Vinogradov, J.P. Zaytzev

THE NEW EPIGRAPHY ANTIQUITY FROM SCYTHIAN NAPLES (preliminary publication)

In 1999 during the excavations of the south-western part of the South palace of Scythian Naples it was found the number of debris of the lime slab with Greek octave. The dimensions of the restoring part of the slab is 78 64 sm. It has architectural decoration and embossed portrayal. The most interest arouses octave. In spite of its bad condition it gives interesting information about famous chieftain Argont and other data, with which help the article makes historical reconstruction of interrelations between Scythian and Kingdom of the Bosporus during the Scilurs rein. It was reviewed circumstances of Argot Scythian Naples-mausoleum construction.


I.S. Vynokur, V.I. Yakubovsky, O.I. Zhurko, V.P. Megei

THE STORAGE TREASURE OF THE ANNALISTIC HUBYN

The jewelry from the storage treasure of the 12th-13th-Centuries are described in the article. It was found on the territory of the hillford of the annalistic Hubyn - the town of Bolokhiv land. It consists of two sets of the female decorations: the silver pendants (kolty), the bracelets, the signet-rings, the rings, the ear-rings of Kiev type, one and a half coils temple pendants, worn next the skin stone cross. On the whole, it includes 40 things. The things of this treasure testify to the development of the jewelry art of Bolokhiv land in the 12th-13th-Centuries, which has continued Kyiv and Chernigiv traditions of the jewelry production and has absorbed the influence of the jewelry art of the Halytsian - Volinian principality as well.


Petrauskas A.V.

EXTRACTION AND TREATMENT OF STONE AT THE ANCIENT RUS VILLAGES OF THE MIDDLE DNIEPER AREA

The data about types of stone rocks which were extracted by rural population in ancient Rus time is given by the author in this article. It was made interesting investigations as to working rocks, making and spreading definite wares. It was specified the dating of appearing and spreading of prophyll slate wares. The special attention was paid to the role of the layer of the Slovechansko-Ovruchskij mounting ridge in the ancient Rus time. On the grounds of the results of the mineralogical analyses, using geological literature, as well as the last published data of the excavations of ancient Rus villages in the Kanev region of the Dnieper river bank it was proved earlier suppositions about polycentric making of ancient Rus millstones. It was made the supplements to solving the problem of reconstruction of ancient Rus pair of the mill stones.


C. Zukcerman

TWO STEPS OF THE FORMATION OF THE ANCIENT RUS STATE

Traditional chronological bounds of the initial period of Rus history are exaggerated but at the same time very narrow. Before the Kyiv Rus forming Rus State system had two stapes of its formation. The first step is 30-70th years of the 9th - century, the second one was the time from coming Rurik to Rus in 895 to the beginning of 10th -century. At that time its political center was transferred to the area of the Middle Dnieper. On the first step of forming its State system this union was named Rus khanate and was located in the Volkhov river basin. The capital of this union was Ladoga. At the beginning of the 70th years of the 9th -century as a result of unknown intertribal war the khanate appeared destroyed. The new union at the head of which was Rurik came up to take destroyed khanate place. Its center as we can consider was Novgorod (Rurik hillfort). The name of state wasnt changed. If the proposed conception is true, the initial step of ancient Rus history must be thoroughly reconsidered.


P.P. Tolochko

THE PRIMORDIAL IS THE RUS

The historiography of the Rus origin question is extraordinary general. Native and foreign researchers show interest in this subject constantly. Propounded by C. Zuckerman conception aspires to reconsideration of the whole of Ancient Rus origin history. Moreover, the author takes the mane part of arguments out of predecessors books, as they say, by the preference method. Their critical analycis is evidence that, nevertheless, historians should keep from fundamental reconsideration of the origin history of Rus counter to authors prospects of it.


M.J. Traster, V.M. Zubar, L.V. Strocova

TWO LEADEN PLATES WITH PORTRAYAL OF THE DANUBE KNIGHT FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF UKRAINIAN HISTORY

The publication analyses two leaden plates, which was handed to the National museum of Ukrainian history among other things by S.N. Platonov in 2001. They apply to the one type of small rectangular embossed portrayal with semicircular edicula, in which embossed portrayals arrange in four horizontal registers. Published plates were quite widely-distributed in the Upper Mezia and Lower Pannonia from the middle of the 2nd-Century AD and in the 3rd-Century AD and had to do with cult of the Danube knight. But the interpretation of such antiquities entails number of obstacles, which were conditioned by their no supporting of epigraphy. The cult of the Danube knight formed in the Danube region among the roman serviceman on the basis of local traditions with influence of the Orient religious tendencies, but its essence isnt clear till now. However, the character of portrayals of these antiquities, in which the religious syncretism had its effect, astral-cosmic tendency of symbolism, mysticism and superstition permit dating of these plates by the final phase of crisis of Greeks ancient religious values preceded of the Christianity diffusion. Unfortunately, it isnt known precisely where the published plates were found. That fact comes down the information which they could give. S.N. Platonov told that he have acquired they not by first-hand, but he is sure that they came from the territory of the modern Ukraine. It gives a possibility to propose very carefully that they came from Chersonesos where the votive embossed portrayal of the 3rd-Century AD was found. The last one is connected with this deity. The possibility of their coming to Ukraine from the territory of the last Yugoslavia by another way cannot be ruled out.


V.V. Romanyuk

THE COMPLEX OF FINDS FROM THE SETTLEMENT OF CHERNICHOV CULTURE NEAR THE LUKYANOVKA VILLAGE

During the last years the archaeological club Nevrida of Tarashcha which is in the region department of the Children and Youth Central Association conducts archaeological reconnaissance near the Lukyanovka village of Tarashcha region. It was found the number of Chernichov culture settlements on the western outlying districts in the Progon natural boundary; the most interesting complex of finds relates to the settlement # 2 and represents in this publication.


O.D. Kozak, I.D. Potehina

INHABITANTS OF THE VLADIMIRS TOWN UNDER THE ANTHROPOLOGY DATA

The article analyzes anthropological and paleopathological investigations of the new stuff from the dwelling of the Vladimirs town which was destroyed during the storm of Kiev by Batu. Craniological, osteological data as to Kiev population in the middle of the 13th-Century AD and also data of paleopathologic analyces of skulls and bones of the postcranial skeletons of three males and two females lost in the December of 1240 are put to scientific circulation. The signs of mortal traumas have been detected in the skulls of two males. Judging by getting data the males were tall and female were low. They had good adaptation for habitat condition and for hard manual labour that is peculiarity of the skeletons developments gives evidence to it and also points out at the specific of the professional jobs of this people. At the same time a great number of healing traumas gives evidence both about high everyday traumatism and about frequent armed conflict. Getting to the childhood time of the majority of individuals unfavourable, hungry years and epidemics at the beginning of the 13th-Century AD left traces in the bones of these humans and had an influence on resicitention of their organisms to the different illness. Our researching showed that population of Kiev had been in pain with infections sickness including some forms of tuberculosis. That is the illness which isnt mentioned in the Ancient Rus annals.



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